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Numerous lines of modern research show that heart disease, cancer, and some forms of dementia arise from dysregulated inflammation. From middle age and beyond, changes of natural ageing disturb the inflammatory balance (see Age Better), but lifestyle choices, particularly diet, have a lot to do with how bad it gets. As a consequence, inflammation and food choices are a major theme of contemporary age research.

It takes years to work out how food affects inflammatory diseases, particularly ones that develop slowly. There is usually no single experiment that proves it; scientists build pictures from clues. Population scientists look at what long lived people, from Asia and the Mediterranean, eat. Biochemists explore interactions between food molecules and human metabolism. Other scientists run experiments on animals, and surrogates, like cells, particularly cancerous ones, grown in laboratory dishes. Their findings are regularly discussed in major scientific and medical journals.

These different lines of research consistently show that longevity has a lot to do with eating minimally processed whole food, particularly coloured fruit and vegetables.   Strong leads are emerging that these foods are effective because they contain potent anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatories. However, these molecules are found throughout the natural world, and are not limited to the plant foods we regularly eat. Many of the best ones comes from inedible options, like leaves and roots. Even pips. Even sap.

The implication is that even the healthiest diet, rich in whole plants, can be augmented by natural extracts that rebalance the immune system, and counteract its age-related changes.

LifeGuard Essentials brings you the fruits of this research. It provides a daily supplement of five of the natural world’s most potent inflammation inhibitors, from sources that are not a routine part of the diet.

Inflammation and Ageing

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Baylis D and others “Understanding How We Age: Insights into Inflammaging” (2013) 2 Longevity and Healthspan.

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Chung H “Molecular inflammation: Underpinnings of Aging and Age-related diseases” (2009) 8 Ageing Research Reviews 18.

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Muriach M and others “Diabetes and the Brain: oxidative stress, inflammation and autophagy” (2014) Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity.

Petersen K and Smith C “Ageing-associated oxidative stress and inflammation are alleviated by products from grapes.” (2016) Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity.

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Rafie N and others “Dietary patterns, food groups and telomere length: a systematic review of current studies” (2017) Eur J Clin Nutr.

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Van Deursen J “ The role of senescent cells in ageing” (2014) 509 Nature 439.

Viña J and others “Theories of ageing” (2007) 59 IUBMB 249.

Zhang J and others “Ageing and the telomere connection: an intimate relationship with inflammation” (2016) 25 Ageing Research Reviews 55.


Aggarwal B and Gehlot P “Inflammation and cancer; how friendly is the relationship for cancer patients” (2009) 9 Current Opinion in Pharmacology 351.

Amir K and others “Chronic inflammation predisposing to cancer metastasis: lesson learned from chronically embedded foreign body in a duodenal diverticulum” (2014) 45 Journal of Gastronintestinal Cancer 136.

Belpomme D and others “The multitude and diversity of environment carcinogens” (2007) 105 Environmental Research 414.

Björn L and others “Achalasia and Esophageal Cancer: Incidence, Prevalence and Prognosis” (2001) 25 World Journal of Surgery 745.

Borrello M and others “Inflammation and cancer: the oncogene-drvien connection” 267 Cancer Letters 262.

Bosch FX and others “The causal realtion between human papillmavirus and cervical cancer” (2002) 55 J Clin Panthol 244.

Coffelt S and de Visser K “Cancer inflammation lights the way to metatasis” (2014) 507 Nature 48.

Cross F and Roberts J “Oncogenes and cell proliferation” (2001) 11 Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 11.

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Dolgin E “Cancer vaccines: Material Breach” (2013) 504 Nature S16.

Faguet G “A brief history of cancer: age old milestones underlying our current knowledge database” (2015) 136 International Journal of Cancer 2022.

Ferguson L “Chronic inflammation and mutagensis” (2010) 690 Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 3.

Ferlay J and others “Cancer incidence and mortalitiy worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012.” (2015) 136 International Journal of Cancer 359.

Garrett M “Oncogenes and cell proliferation” (2005) 15 Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 1.

Gilbert C and Slingerland J “Cytokines, Obesity and Cancer: New insights on mechanisms linking obesity to cancer risk and progression” (2013) 64 Annual Review of Medicine 45.

Goodwin P and Stambolic V “Impact of the Obesity Epidemic on Cancer” (2013) 66 Annual Review of Medicine 281.

Hajdu SI “A note from history: Landmarks in hisotry of cancer” (2011) 117 Cancer 1097.

Hoenerhoff M “Inflammation and cancer; Partners in Crime” (2015) 206 The Veterinary Journal 1.

Iyengar N and others “Obesity and Cancer: Local and Systemic Mechanisms” (2015) 66 Annual Review of Medicine 297.

Jamrozik E and others “Absestos-related disease” (2011) 41 Internal Medicine Journal.

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Katherine E and others “Unhealthy diests; a common soil for the association of metabolic syndrome and cancer” (2014) 46 Endocrine 39.

Kim M and others “Prevention of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Beyond Hepatitis B Vaccination” (2015) 42 Seminars in Oncology 316.

Lee C and others “Obesity, adipokines and cancer: an update” (2015) 83 Clinical Endocrinology 147.

Lukasz D and Ewa M “Lifestyle Modifications and Colorectal Cancer (2014). 10 Current Colorectal Cancer Reports 45.

Mangesh A and Cuzick J “The role of aspirin in cancer prevention” (2013) 15 Curr Oncol Rep 533.

Manuel J “Environment, Genes and Cancer” (1996) 104 Environmental Health Perspectives 256.

Mantovani A and others “Cancer-related inflammation” (2008) 254 Nature 436.

Pinzani M and others “Liver cirrhosis” (2011) 25 Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology 281.

Raposo TP and others “Inflammation and cancer; till death tears them apart” (2015) 205 The Veterinary Journal 161.

Read S and Douglas M “Virus induced inflammation and cancer development” (2014) 345 Cancer Letters 174.

Rothwell P and others “Short-term effect of daily aspirin on cancer incidence, mortality and non vascular death; analysis of the time-course of the risks and benefits in 51 randomised controlled trials” (2012) 379 Lancet 1602.

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Seyfried T and others “Cancer as a metabolic disease: implications for novel therapeutics” (2014) 35 Carcinogensis 515.

Steenland K and Ward E “Silica: a long carcinogen” (2014) 64 Cancer Journal for Clinicians 63

Takeo I “NSAIDS and colorectal cancer prevetion” (2009) 44 J Gastroenterol.

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Venerito M and others “Helicobacter Pylori and Gastrointestinal Malignancies” (2015) 20 Helicobacter 36.

Weiss R and Vogt P “100 years of Rous Sarcoma Virus” (2011) 208 The Journal of Experimental Medicine 2351.

Weitzel J and others “Genetics, genomics and cancer risk assesssment” (2011) 61 Cancer Journal for Clinicians 327.

Wilson G and George J “Physical and Chemical Insults induce inflammations and gastrointestinal cancers” 345 Cancer Letters 190.

“Cancer. Solving an age-old problem” (2012) 483 Nature.

Heart disease and stroke

Antonopoulos A and others “Stains as Anti-Inflammatory Agents nii Atherogensis: Molecular Mechanisms and Lessons from the Recent Clinical Trials” (2012) 18 Current Pharmaceutical Design 1519.

Blaha M and Martin S “ How do stains work?” (2013) 62 Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2392.

Cheryl L and Fernando E “Inflammation and Therapy for Hypertension” (2010) 12 Current Hypertension Repotrs 233.

Falk E “Pathogensis of atherosclerosis” (2006) 47 Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Grundy S “Stains for All?” (2014) 114 The American Journal of Cardiology 1443.

Ikonomidis I “Inflammatory markers in coronary artery disease” (2012) 38.5 BioFactors 320.

Jukema J and others “The Controversies of Satin Therapy” (2012) 60 American Journal of Cardiology.

Kang J and others “Imagin the renin-angiostensin system: An important target of anti-hypertensive therapy” (2006) 58 Advanced Drug Delivery Review 824.

Kinlay S and Selwyn A “Effect of stains on inflammation in patients with acute and chronic coronary syndromes” (2003) 91 The American Journal of Cardiology 9.

Libby P and others “Inflammation in artherosclerosis; from pathophysiology to practice” (2009) 54 Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Libby P “History of Discovery-Inflammation in Atherosclerosis” (2012) 32 Arterioscler Throm Vasc Biol 2045.

Mahesh P and Michael B “Inflammation and Atherosclerosis: Disease Modulating Therapies” (2013) 15 Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine 681.

Marvar P and others “The central nervous system and inflammation in hypertension” (2011) 11 Current Opinion in Pharmacology 156.

Matsuura E and others “Oxidation of LDL and its clinical implications” (2008) 7 Autoimmunity Reviews 558.

Montecucco F and Mach F “Stains, ACE inhibitors and ARBs in cardiovascular disease” (2009) 23 Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 389.

Nilsson J and others “Atheroprotective immunity and cardiovascular disease: therapeutic opportunities and challenges” (2015) 278 Journal of Internal Medicine 507.

Paolo C and others “CRP and the risk of atherosclerotic events” (2009) 31 Seminars in Immunopathology 79.

Pickering T “Stress, Inflammation, and Hypertension” (2007) 9 Journal of Clinical Hypertension 569.

Shah P and others “Vaccine for Atherosclerosis” (2014) 64 Journal of the Amercian College of Cardiology 2779.

Suzuki Y and others “Inflammation and aniotensin II” (2003) 35 The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 881.

Tousoulis D and others “Innate and Adaptive Inflammation as a Therapeutic Target in Vascular Disease” (2014) 63 Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2491.

Weintraub H “Identifying the vulnerable patients with rupture-prone plaque” (2008) 101 American Journal of Cardiology 3F

Wick G and Grundtman C “Inflammation and atherosclerosis” (2012) Spriger Verlay/ Wein.


Ader R “On the development of pyschoneuroimmunology” (2000) 405 European Journal of Pharmacology 161.

Bahramsoltani R and others “Phytochemical constituents as future antidepressants; a comprehensive review” (2015) 26 Reviews in the Neurosciences 710.

Brown G and Vilalta A “How microglia kill neurons” (2015) 1628 Brian Research 288.

Butchart J “Systemic inflammation and Alzheimer’s disease” (2011) 39 Biochemical Society Transactions 898.

Dening T and Sandilyan M “Dementia: definitions and types” (2015) 29 Nursing Standard 37

Desai A “Dieatary Polyphenols as Potential Remedy for Dementia” (2016) 12 Adv Neurobiol 41.

Felix D and others “The Blood-Brain Barrier” (2013) 8 Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 763.

Hayley S and others “Inflammation and the microbiome: implications for depressive disorders” (2016) 29 Current Opinion in Pharmacology 42.

Holmes C “Review: Systematic Inflammation and Alzheimer’s disease” (2013) 39 Neuropathy and Applied Neurobiology 51.

Hu Z and others “Inflammation: a bridge between postoperative cognitive dysfunction and Alzheimer’s disease” (2010) 74 Medical Hypotheses 722.

Janssen D and others “A psychoneuroimmunological review on cytokines involved in antidepressant treatment response” (2010) 25 Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental 201.

Johnston H “Assessing the contribution of inflammation in models of Alzheimer’s disease” (2011) 39 Biochemical Society Transactions 886.

Keaney J and Campbell M “The dynamic blood-brain barrier” (2015) 282 Febs Journal 4067.

Kettenmann H and others “Physiology of Microglia” (2011) 91 Physiological Review 461.

Koyama A and others “Inflammation and Risk of Dementia: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies” (2012) 8 Alzheimer’s and Dementia.

Leonard B “Impact of inflammation on neurotransmitter changes in major depression: an insight into the action of antidepressants” (2014) 48 Progress in Neuro-Pyschopahrmcology 261.

Leonard B and Myint A “The psychoneuroimmunology of depression” (2009) 24 Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental 165.

Libro R and others “Natural Phytochemicals in the Treatment and Prevention of Dementia: An Overview” (2016) 21 Molecules 518.

McGeer PL and others “Inflammation, Antiinflammatory Agents and Alzheimer’s Disease: the Last 22 years” (2016) 54 J Alzheimers Dis 853.

Mendiola-Precoma J and others “Therapies for Prevention and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease” (2016) BioMed Research International.

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O’Donovan A and others “Suicidal ideation is associated with elevated inflammation in patients with mahor depressive disorder” (2013) 30 Depresseion and Anxiety 307.

Pathak L and others “A Natural polyphenols in the management of major depression” (2013) 22 Expert Opin Investig Drugs 863.

Phani S and others “Neurodegeneration and inflammation in Parkinson’s disease” (2012) 18 Parkinsonism & Related Disorders S209.

Schott J “Infection, inflammation and Alzheimer’s disease” (2015) 22 European Journal of Neurology 1503.

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Simone M and Tan Z. “The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of delrium and dementia in older adults” (2011) 17 CNS: Neuroscience and Therapeutics.

Song C and Wang H “Cytokines mediated inflammation and decreased neurogensis in animal models of depression” (2011) 35 Progress in Neiro-Pyschopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 760.

Su K “Nurition, psychoneuroimmunology and depression: the therapeutic implications of omega-3 fatty acids in interferon induced depression” (2015) 5 BioMedicine.

Wilson C and others “Cytokines and Cognititon: The Case for a Head to Tow Inflammatory Paradigm” (2002) 50 Journal of Amercian Geriatrics Society.


Aggarwal BB and Sung B “Pharmacological basis for the role of curcumin in chronic diseases: an age-old spice with modern targets.” (2009) 30 Trends Pharmacol Sci 85.

Aggarwal B and Harikumar K “Potential therapeutic effects of curcumin, the anti-inflammatory agent, against neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmunue and neoplastic diseases” (2009) 41 The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 40.

Ahmed T and Gilani A “Therapeutic Potential of Turmeric in Alzheimer’s Disease: Curcumin or Curcumnoids?” (2014) 28 Phytotherapy Research 517.

Bernard U and Robert B “Is Curcumin a Chemopreventive Agent for Colorectal Cancer?” (2016) 12 Current Colorectal Cancer Reports 35.

Bisht S and Maitra A “Systemic delivery of curcumin: 21st century solution for an ancient conundrum” (2009) 6 Curr Drug Discov Technol 192.

Brietzke E and others “Is there a role for curcimin in the treatment of bipolar disorder?” (2013) 80 Medical Hypotheses 606

Chandran B and Goel A “A randomised, pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of curcumin in patients with activeheumatoid arthritis” (2012) 11 Phytother Res 1719.

Chang Y and others “GRP78 mediates the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin on colon cancer” (2014) 36 Tumor Biology 633.

Churches Q and others “Naturally occuring polyphenolic inhibitors of amyloid beta aggregation” (2014) 24 Bioorganis and Medicinal Chemistry Letters 3108.

Mazur A and Morand C “Dietary curcumin inhibits athersclerosis by affecting the expression of genes involved in leukocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration” (2012) 56 Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 1270.

Duke J “Tumeric, the Queen of the COX-2 inhibitors” (2007) Alternative and Complementary Therapies.

Esatbeyoglu T and others “Curcumin: From Molecule to Biological function” (2012) 51 Angewandte Chemie International Edition 5308.

Gescher A “Multitargeting by turmeric, the golden spice: from ktichen to clinic” (2013) 57 Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 1510.

Gupta SC and others “Therapeutic Roles of Curcumin: Lessons Learned from Clinical Trials” (2013) 15 The AAPS Journal 195.

Grynkiewicz G and Slifirski P “Curcumin and curcuminoids in quest for medicinal status” (2012) Acta Biochemica Polonica.

Hiroshi I “Potent preventive action of curcimin on radiation induced initiation of mammart tumorigenesis in rats” (200) 21 M.N.M.Y.T.H.K.

Howes M and Perry E “The Role of Phytochemicals in the Treatment and Prevention of Dementia” (2012) 28 Drugs & Aging 439.

Jaggi L “Turmeric, Curcumin and Our Life: A Review” (2012) 1 Pharmacol. Life Sci 11. Jiang H and others “Anti-depressant-like effects of curcumin in chronic mild stress of rats: involvement of anti-inflammatory actions” (2013) 47 Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 33.

Kalani A and others “Epigenetic impact of curcumin on stroke prevention” (2015) 30 Metabolic Brain Disease 427.

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Kumar A and others “Curcumin Resource Database” (2015) The Journal of Biological Databases and Curation 1.

Lee WH and others “Curcumin and its Derivative: Their application in neuropharamcology and neuroscience in the 21st century” (2013) 11 Current Neuropharmacology 338.

Maiti K and others “Curcumin-phospholipid complex: preparation, therapeuti evaluation and pharmacokinetic study in rats” (2007) 330 Interantional Journal of Pharmaceutics 155.

Manish J and others “ Improvement of Bioavailiability and Anti Inflammatory Potential of Curcumin in Combination with Eme Oil” (2014) Inflammation 2139.

Mario PM “Curcumin and Health” (2016) 21 Molecules 264.

Mazzanti G and Di Giacomo S “Curcumin and Resveratrol in the Management of Cognitive Disorders: What Is the Clinical Evidence?” (2016) 21 Molecules 1243.

Mishra S and Palanivelu K “The Effect of Curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer’s Disease: An Overview” (2008) 11 Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 13.

Queen BL and Tollefsbol TO “Polyphenols and Aging” (2010) 3 Current Aging Science 34.

Prasad S and others “Curcumin, a component of golden spiceL From beside to bench and back” (2014) 32 Biotechnology Advances 1053.

Ravindran PN and others “Tumeric: The genus Curcuma” (2007) Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles CRC Press.

Reddi P “A Touch of Turmeric: Examining an Ayurvedic Treasure” (2013) 3 Advances in Anthropology 91.

Shen L and others “How does curcumin work with poor bioavailability? Clues from experimental and theoretical studies” (2016) Scientific Reports.

Shishodia S and others “Role of Curcumin in Cancer Therapy” (2007) 31 Current Problems in Cancer 243.

Sikora E and others. “Curcumin, inflammation, ageing and age-related diseases” (2010) Immunity & Ageing 3.

Subash C and others “Therapeutic Roles of Curcumin: Lessons Learned from Clinical Trials” (2013) 15 AAPA J 195.

Sun A and others “Botanical Phenolics and Brain Health” (2008) 10 NeuroMolecular Medicine 259.

Vaughn A and others “Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma Ionga) on Skin Health: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Evidence” (2016) 30 Phytotherapy Researach 1243. Willcox DC and others “Healthy Aging diets other than the Mediterranean: A Focus on the Okinawan Diet” (2014) 136 Mechanisms of Aging and Development 148.

Zingg J and Meydani M “Curcumin and aging” (2013) 39 BioFactors 133.

Zingg J and Meydani M “Molecular mechanisms of curcumin action: Gene Expression” (2013) 39 BioFactors 37.

Zingg J and Meydani M “Curcumin in various cancers” (2013) 39 BioFactors 56.

Zingg J and Meydani M “Curcumin in inflammatory diseases” (2013) 39 BioFactors 69.

Zingg J and Meydani M “Curcumin and obesity” (2013) 39 BioFactors 78.

Zhang D and others “Curcumin and Diabetes: A systematic Review” (2013) Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

Grape seeds and skin

Akaberi M and Hosseinzadeh H “Grapes (Vitis vinifers) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome” (2016) 30 Phytotherapy Research 540.

Alarcón de la Lastra C and Villegas I “Resveratrol as an anti inflammatory and anti aging agent: Mechnaisms and clinical implications” (2005) 49 Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 405.

Ali K and others “Metabolic constituents of grapevine and grape-derived products” (2010) 9 Phytochemistry Reviews 357.

Anastasiadi M and others “Grape stem extracts: Polyphenolic content and assessment of their in vitro antioxidant properties” (2012) 48 LWT Food Science and Technology 316.

Bhullar K and Hubbard B “Lifespan and healthspan extension by resveratrol” (2015) 1852 BBA Molecular Basis of Disease 1209.

Choi S-K and others “Suppression of oxidative stress by grape seed and supplementation in rats” (2016) 6 Nutrition Reasearch and Practice 3.

Dolinsky V and Dyck J “Calorie restriction and resveratrol in cardiovascular health and disease” (2011) 1812 BBA Molecular Basis of Disease 1477.

Garavaglia J and others “Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemcial Actions for Health” (2016) 9 Nutrition and Metabolic Insights 59.

Georgiev V and others “Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Falvonoids as Nutraceuticals” (2014) 6 Nutrients 391.

Giovinazzo G and Grieco F “Functional Properties of Grape and Wine Polyphenols” (2015) 70 Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 454.

Halpern G “A celebration of wine: wine IS medicine” (2008) 16 Inflammopharmacology 240.

Kar P and others “Effects of grape seed extract in Type 2 diabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a double blind randomised placebo controlled trial examining metabolic markers, vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin senstitivity” (2009) 26 Diabet Med 526.

Kulkarni S and Cantó C “The molecular target of reversatrol” (2015) 1852 BBA Molecular Basis of Disease 1114.

Leifert W and Abeywardena M “Cardioprotective actions of grape polyphenols” (2008) 28 Nutrition Research 729.

Marques F and others “Resveratrol: Cellular actions of a potent natural chemcial that confers a diversity of health benefits” (2009) 41 The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 2125.

Nguyen C and others “Potential Therapeutic Interest in Joint Disorders: A Critical Narrative Review” (2017) 9 Nutrients 45.

Nowshehri J and others “Blessings in disguise: Bio-functional benefits of grape seed extracts” (2015) 77 Food Research International 333.

Nunes M and others “Cardioprotective properties of grape seed proanthocyanindins: An update” (2016) 57 Trends in Food Science and Technology 31.

O’Keefe J and others “Alcohol and Cardiovascular Health: The Dose Makes the Poison or the Remedy” 89 Mayo Clinic Proceedings 382.

Panico AM and others “The in vitro effect of a lyophilised extract of wine obtained from Jacquez grapes on human chondrocytes” (2006) 13 Phytomedicine 522. ,

Park E and Pezzuto J “The pharmacology of resveratrol in animals and humans” (2015) 1852 BBA Molecular Basis of Disease 1071.

Pasinetti G and others “Roles of resveratrol and other grape-derive polyphenols in Alzheimer’s disease prevention and treatment” (2015) 1852 BBA Molecular Basis of Disease 1202.

Renaud S and de Lorgeril M “Wine, alcohol, platelets, and the french paradox for coronary heart disease” (1992) 339 Lancet 1523.

Sesso H “Alcohol and Cardiovascular Health” (2012) 1 Amercian Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs 167.

Shrikhande A “Wine by-products with health benefits” (2000) 33 Food Research International 469.

Soleas G and others “Wine as biological fluid: History, production and role in disease prevention” (1997) 11 Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis 287.

Teixeira A and others “Natural Bioactive Compounds from Winery By-Products as Health Promoters: A Review” (2014) 15 International Journal of Molecular Sciences 15638.

Tomé-Carneiro J and Visioli F “Polyphenol-based nutraceuticals for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease: Review of human evidence” (2016) 23 Phytomedicine 1145.

Vingtdeux V and others “Therapeutic potential of resveratrol in Alzheimer’s disease” (2008) 9 BMC Neuroscience S6.

Yu J and Ahmedna M “Functional components of grape pomace: their composition, biological properties and potential applications” (2014) 48 International Journal of Food Science & Technology 221.

Yun Chau Long T “The biochemistry and cell biology of aging: metabolic regulation through mitochondrial signaling” (2014) 306 AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 582.


Abdel-Tawab M and others “Boswellia serrata. An overall assessment of In Vitro, preclinical, pharmacokinetic and clinical data” (2012) 50 Pharmacokinetics 349.

Ahmed HH and others “Phytochemical Analysis and Anti-cancer Investigation of Boswellia serrata Biactive Constituents in Vitro” (2015) 16 Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 7179.

Catanzaro D and others “Boswellia serrata preserves intesitnal epithelial barrier from oxidative and inflammatory damage” (2015) 10 PloS ONE.

Grover AK and Samson SE “Benefits of antioxidant supplements for knee osteoarthritis: rationale and reality” (2015) 15 Nutrition Journal.

Ammon HPT and others “Mechanism of anti-inflammatory actions of curcumine and boswellic acids” (1993) 38 Journal of Ethnopharmacology 105.

Kirste S and others “Boswellia serrata acts on cerebal edema in patients irradiated for brain tumors: a prosepctive, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-bline pilot trial” (2011) 117 Cancer 3788.

Moussaieff A and Mechoulam R “Boswellia resin: from religious ceremonies to medical uses; a review of in vitro, in vitro and clinical trials” (2009) 61 Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology: An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 1282.

Ni X and others “Frankincense essential oil prepared from hydrodistillation of Boswellia Sacra gum resins induces human pancreatic cell death in cultures and in a xenograft murine model” (2012) 12 BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 253.

Suhail M and others “Boswellia sacra essential oil induces tumor cell specific apoptosis and suppresses tumour agressiveness in cultured human breast cancer cells” (2011) 11 BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10.

Umar S and others “Boswellia serrata extract attenuates inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in collagen induced arthritis” (2014) 21 Phytomedicine 847.

Zhang Y and others “Triterpenoid resinous metabolites from the genus Boswellia: pharmacological activites and potential species-identifying properties” (2013) 7 Chemistry Central Journal 1.

(2008) 51 Chemical & Engineering News 38.

Olive leaves

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Azaizeh H and others “Antioxidant activity of phenolic factions in olive mill wastewater” (2012) 134 Food Chemistry 2226.

Barbaro B and others “Effects of the Olive Dervied Polyphenol Oleuropein on Human Health” (2014) 15 International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18508.

Bernardini E and Visioli F “High quality, good health: The case for olive oil” (2017) 119 European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 6.

Covas M “Bioactive effects of olive oil phenolic compounds in humans: reduction of heart disease factors and oxidative damage” (2008) 16 Inflammopharmacology 216.

Estruch R and others “Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with Mediterranean diet” (2013) 368 N Engl J Med 1279.

Martín Peláez S and others “Health effects of olive oil polyphenols: Recent advances and possibilities for the use of health claims” (2013) 57 Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 760.

Mozaffarian D “Dietary and Policy Priorities for Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, and Obesity – A Comprehensive Review” (2016) 133 Circulation 187.

Omar S “Oleuropein in Olive and its Pharmacological Effects” (2010) 78 Scientia Pharmaceutica 133.

Owen R and others “Identfication of Lignans as Major Components in the Phenolic Fraction of Olive Oil” (2000) 46 Clinical Chemistry 976.

Pelletier A and others “Mediterr anean diet and preserved brain structural connectivity in older subjects” (2015) 11 Alzheimer’s and Dementia 1023.

Pérez Jiménez F “Olive oil and oxidative stress” (2007) 51 Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 1215.

Pitt J and others “Alzheimer’s associated Aβ oligomers show altered structure, immunoreactivity and synatotoxicity with low doeses of oleocanthal” (2009) 240 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 189.

Rahmanian N and others “Bioactive profile, dehydration, extraction and application of bioactive components of olive leaves” (2015) 42 Trends in Food Science and Technology 150.

Rigacci S “Olive Oil Phenols as Promising Multi-targeting Agents Against Alzheimer’s Disease.” (2105) 863 Adv Exp Med Biol 1.

Scotece M and others “New drugs from ancient natureal foods: Oleocanthal, the natural occuring spicy compound of olive oil” (2015) 20 Drug Discovery Today 406.

Singh B and others “Association of Mediterranean Diet with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis” (2014) 39 Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 271.

Tresserra-Rimbau A and others “Polyphenol intake and mortality risk: a re analysis of the PREDIMED trial” (2014) 12 BMC Medicine 77.

Bikal Skullcap

Cao Y and others “Baicalin attenuates global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in gerbils via anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic pathways” (2011) 85 Brain Research Bulletin 396.

Chan E and others “Extract of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi root exerts protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats” (2011) 39 The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 693.

Choi J and others “Flavones form Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi attenuate apopotosis and protein oxidation in neuronal cell lines” (2002) 1571 BBA General Subjects 201. Chi YS and others “Effects of wogonin, a plant flavone from Scutellaria radix, on skin inflammation: in vivo regulation of inflammation-associated gene expression” (2003) 66 Biochemical Pharmacology 1271.

Gao L and others “A Bioinofrmatic Approach for the Discovery of Antiaging Effects of Baicalein from Scuterllaria baicalensis Georgi” (2016) Rejuvenation Research 414.

Gao Z and others “Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of flavonoids extracted from the radix of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi” (1999) 1472.BBA General Subjections 643.

Gasiorowski K and others “Flavones from root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi: drugs of the future in neurodegeneration?” (2011) 10 CNS and Neurological Disorders-Drug Targets 184.

Huang WH and others “Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of polyhydroxyflavonoids of Scutellaria baicalensis GEORGI” (2006) 70 Bioscience, biotechnology and biochemistry 2371.

Kubo M and others “Studies on Scutellariae radix. VII. Anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory actions of methanolic extract and flavonoid components from Scutellariae radix” (1984) 32 Chemcial and pharmaceutical bulletin 2724.

Li BQ and others “The flavonoid baicalin exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by binding to chemokines” (2000) 49 Immunopharmacology 295.

Li-Weber M “New Therapeutic aspects of flavones: the anticancer properties of Scutellaria and its main active constituents Wogonin, Baicalein and Baiclain” (2009) 35 Cancer Reviews 57.

Moore OA and others “The Extraction, Anticancer effect, Bioavailability and Nanotechnology of Baicalin” (2016) 2 Journal of Nutritional Medicine and Diet Care 11. Pang K and Zhong Z “Pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetics properties of Radix Acutellariae and its bioactive flavones” (2011) 32 Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition 427.

Park B and others “Inhibition of TPA induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and skin inflammation in mice by woggonin, a plant flavone from Scuterllaria radix” (2001) 425 European Journal of Pharmacology 153.

Polier G and others “Wogonin and related natural flavones are inhibitors of CDK9 that induce apoptosis in cancer cells by transcriptional suppression of Mcl-1” (2011) 2 Cell Death and Disease 182.

Reichek N and Parcham-Azad K “Reperfusion Injury” (2010) 55 Journal of Amercian College of Cardiology 1206.

Wright P “Passport to Peking: A very British mission to Mao’s China.” (2010) 265 Chinese Medicine Lancet 1068.

Wu X and others “Adavances of wogonin, an extract from Scuterllaria baicalensis, for the treatement of multiple tumors” (2016) 9 OncoTargets and Therapy 2936.

Xu Q and others “The quest for modernisation of traditional Chinese Medicine” (2013) 13 BMC Complmentary and Alternative Medicine 132.

Zhang Y and others “Protective effect of flavonoids from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi on cerebral ischemia injury” (2006) 108 Journal of ethnopharmacology 355.